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sWQgQrQ ln~qE yk;NW@y`~ q?

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@m| sm|bn~{@yn~ wvmw~ @b`@h`~ @qn` @g~ s#lkQl~lt @y`mR @n` vR kr#Nk~ s[hn~ kL yRwO y. @m`~gl~ @hvw~ mRgl~ a{Qr`j&y@y~ ihL m nQr\m`Nyk~ @ls s#l@kn tj~mhl~ mn~qQry qhhw~v#nQ sQyv@s~ nQm#vQNQ. sh`j`n~ rjR kQYs~wO vr\; 1631 qW wm wOn~v#nQ bQrQy mQyy$m nQs` @X`~kyt pw~ v bQsv @vnR@vn~ e~ mn~qQry iqQkr a#w. ehQ g^h nQr\m`N XQl~py pr\sQyn~, ar`bQ in~qQyn~ sAklnyk~ y#yQ kQy#@vyQ. e~ awr ehQ uq&`n@yhQ a#wQ s^jR@k`~N`sY`k`r rt`v h` ey c`r\b`g~ @hvw~ cwOr\ uq&`n @ls h#[Qn~@vn kOd` uyn~ hwrktw~ @bq` wQbWm s#lkQl~lt gw yRwO y. @m| c`r\b`g~ sAkl~py kQYs~wO pRr\v 558 - 330 sm@yhQ vR p#rFNQ pr\sQyn~ a{Qr`j&yk~ qk~v` qQv yyQ.

sWgQrQ@yhQ uyn~ sAkl~py q eyt @kwrm| sm`n q yn~n vQms` b#lQy yRwO y. k`X&p rjwOm`t yk; sm|bn~{km| os~@s~ @m| pr\sQyn~ uyn~ sAkl~py l#bQNQ q? t`j~mhl~ h` sWgQrQy awr ym| sm|bn~{yk~ wQ@b| q? sWgQrQy kO@v|r @mn~ jWvw~vWmt uw~s`h gw~ yk; sm|bn~{km| a#wQ rjkO @g~ nQr\m`Nyk~ nm| pr\sQyn~ uq&`n sAkl~pyk~ sWgQrQyt ekwO vWm pRqEmyt kr#Nk~ @n` vQy yRwO y. e@hw~ @m| sm|bn~{@yn~ v#dQqEr a{&ynyk~ avX& bv amRwO@vn~ kQv yRwO @n` @vyQ. sWgQrQ@y~ krn lq k#NWm|vlQn~ m$wk qW mwOkrgw~ uyn~ rt`v mn` a{&ynykt @y`mR kL yRwO @vyQ.

sWgQrQ cQwYvlQn~ pQLQbQBR vn~@n~ kvRr#n~ q yn pYX~ny e~ smM @vyQ. e~ ap~sr`vn~ y#yQ a#w#m|hR kQywQ. wvw~ smhr#n~t anRv ehQ a#[ a#w~@w~ k`X&p rjwOm` @g~ qQyNQyn~ y. sWgQrQy mh`y`n pn~slk~ @ls sQwn~nn~t sWgQrQ cQwYvl a#w~@w~ x`vn`vt @y`mRkr gw h#kQ r$p y. sWgQrQy k`X&p rjR @g~ yk; sAs~k^wQy nQr$pNy krn w#nk~ nm| sQgQrQ cQwYvlQn~ q#k~@vn~@n~ yk;NQyn~ vQy h#kQ y. @mhQ yk;NQyn~ y#yQ h#[Qn~@vn~@n~ yk; @qvMnn~ y. yk;@y`~ @mn~ m yk;NQ@y`~ q ihw s[hn~ kr a#wQ prQqQ kO@v|ryt @s~vy kL @qvQ@y`~ @vwQ.

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e@hw~ qBqQv @mn~ m lAk`@v| q yk; @g`~wQYkyn~ awr (psR k@lk lAk`@v| nm| sQAhl j`wQyt mRUmNQn~ m a#wOU @n` vR yk; @g`~wYQkyn~ awr) yk;yn~ h` yk;NQyn~ qQgQn~ qQgt m @q~vw~v@yn~ slknR lbn~nt a#w. k`X&p rjR q wm yk; @g`~wYQk sm|bn~{km| @h~wO@vn~ yk;yn~ h` yk;NQyn~ @q~v gn@yhQ l` slkn~nt a#w. sWgQrQy yk; sAs~k^wQ@yhQ nQr\m`Ny krn lq~qk~ nm| sWgQrQ cQwYvlQn~ pQLQbQBR vn~@n~ yk;NQyn~, enmQ yk; @q~vMnn~ vQy h#kQ y.

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sWgQrQ l[En~ yk;NQyn~ nm| prNvQw`n mhw` k`X&p rjR kO@v|r @mn~ jWvw~ vWy ynR@vn~ pL kr a#wQ mwyt wvw~ eLQyk~ v#@tyQ. yk;NQ@y`~ kO@v|rt @s~vy kL w#n#w~wW@y`~ vRh. k`X&p rjRt @s~vy kQrWmt yk;NQyn~ @n` vR b#vQn~ ohR yk;NQyn~ @g~ r$p sQwOvm| kL` vQy h#kQ y. e@s~w~ n#w@h`w~ kO@v|r sQhQ krmQn~ yk;NQyn~ @g~ r$p sQwOvm| kL` vQy h#kQ y. yk;yn~ @g~ r$p sQwOvm| kQrWmt k`X&p rjRt anvX& vn~nt a#w.

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e@hw~ sWgQrQy e@s~ @n` @v|. ey a#w~@w~ sQAhl sAs~k^wQ@yn~ b#h#rv y. apQ aq yk;NQyn~ @qvMnn~ @ls @n` slkmR. aq apt yk;NQyk~ kW vQt m#vW @p@nn~@n~ vQr$pW qw~ @nr` @g`s~ mRvQn~ eLQyt p#mQNQ qQv eLQyt qm`gw~ w#n#w~wQykQ. vQ@X~;@yn~ m psR k@lk @k~rL sAs~k^wQk`Ag mQXY vQ@mn~ psRv e~ aqhs ap awr wvw~ whvRr# vW a#w. @k~rL@y~ yk;NQ@y`~ vQr$pW w#n#w~wQ@y`~ @vwQ. e@hw~ yk;NQyn~ ynR @qvMnn~ @ls sQwn~nt ptn~ gw~ psR apt sWgQrQ cQwY @p@nn~@n~ @vnw~ a`k`rykt y.

e@hw~ apt wvw~ v#qgw~ pYX~nyk~ iwQrW vW a#w. sWgQrQy e@s~ h#[Qn~@vn~@n~ a#yQ? e~ sQAh gQrQy @w~r#m @gn @qyQ sWgQrQ@y~ a#wQ sQAh kt eyt @h~wOv vn~nt a#w. sWgQrQ g@l~ ud a#wQ k`X&p nQvst (eyt ekl m`LQg`v y#yQ @n` kQyn~nt a#w. m`LQg`v yn~n nRvr yRg@y~ ekwO vR vcnykQ. anRr`{pRr@y~ a#w~@w~ qLq` @gyk~ mQs qLq` m`LQg`vk~ @n` @v|. aq q apQ bRqE @g~, vQh`r @g~ h` rj @g~ yn vcn @y`q` gnQmR.) a#wOU vQy h#k~@k~ sQAh ktQn~ y.

sWgQrQ@y~ sQAhy` k`@g~ nQr\m`Nyk~ q? e@s~w~ n#w@h`w~ ey psRv rj vR sQAh (@m_r\y) v`AXQk rjkO vQsQn~ nQr\m`Ny krn lq~qk~ q? sWgQrQy sQAhl sAs~k^wQ@y~ aAgyk~ bvt pw~kQrWmt @h`~ eytw~ eh` @g`s~ sWgQrQ@yhQ sQAh a`{Qpw&y pQhQtRvWm s[h` @h`~ @vnw~ rjkO psRv sQAhy` iqQkrn~nt a#w. e@s~ n#w@h`w~ k`X&p rjR yk; sm|bn~{km| a#wQ wm` jWvw~ vn~@n~ sQAh ktk~ wOL bv mwk~ kr g#nWmt @h`~ sQAhyQn~t axQ@y`~g`w~mk v @h`~ sQAhy` nQr\m`Ny krn~nt a#w. e~ kOmk~ vRvw~ sWgQrQy yk; sAs~k^wQ@y~ bQhQvRvk~ nm| ey sQAh gQrQy nmQn~ sWgQrQy @ls h#[Qn~vWm q ek~wr` a`k`ryk @ewQh`sQk srqmk~ @vyQ.

mh`c`r\y nlQn~ q sQl~v`