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sQAhl j`wQ@y~ sm|xvy

mh` vQh`rQk xQk;Rn~ vhn~@s~l` vQsQn~ krn lq k`r\yx`ry pQLQb[v apQ qQgQn~ qQgt m kw` kr a#w~@wmR. hwrv#nQ ps~v#nQ sQyvs~vl un~vhn~@s~ ek~ p#w~wkQn~ kr a#w~@w~ an~qY p|@q~X@yn~ @}rv`q bRqEqhm n#wQ vn ayRr#w~ e~ mh`y`nytw~ in~psR @@vqQk a`gmtw~ (psRv hQn~qE vR) prQvr\wny vnR q$k lAk`@v| @}rv`qy a`rk;` kQrWmt pQyvr g#nWm y. ehQ qW un~vhn~@s~ a`n~qY@yn~ v#dm kL bRq~{@G`~; h` bRq~{qw~w a`qW hQmQvr#n~ smM ekwO vW {r\my p`lQ@yn~ lQy` w#bWmt pQyvr @gn a#w. a@nk~ p#w~@wn~ un~vhn~@s~ kr a#w~@w~ qk;QN x`rw@y~ ekl n#gW a` @qmL bly lAk`@v| p#wQr y$m v#L#k~vWm s[h` sRqEsR k|Qy` m`r\gyk~ anRq$n v#q$rWm y. @m| aAX @qk m ekwO @krW a#w~@w~ @}rv`q bRqEqhm rFkWm sQAhlyn~ @g~ k`r\yx`ry bvt pw~ krmQnQ. g#mRNR kOmr# @m| sm|bn~{@yn~ p|`@y`~gQkv ym| k|Qy` m`r\gyk~ gn~nt a#w. ewOm` @g~ sRp|sQq~{ p|k`Xyk~ vR "m`@g~ @m| v&`y`my hR@qk~ rj s#p pQNQs @n` v bRq~{ X`sn@y~ cQrs~}QwQy s[h` y" yn~n sQAhlyn~ @g~ j`wQ@y~ mwv`qy h` k`r\yx`ry bvt pw~ krn~nt a#w~@w~ mh` vQh`rQk xQk;Rn~ vhn~@s~ y.

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a@p~ mRU iwQh`sy m vQk`X vW a#w~@w~ @m| kr#N vt` y. 1815 qW aw~sn~ krn lq sQAhl bQrQw`nQ gQvQsRmt q bQrQw`nWn~ bRqEqhm rFkQy yRwO y, @p`~;Ny kL yRwO y ynR@vn~ vgn~wQyk~ a#wOU vW a#w~@w~ sQAhlyn~ @g~ sQw~vl (a#@MhQ) @m| kr#N p#LpqQym| vW a#wQ b#vQnQ. e~ vgn~wQyt ekM vWmt bQrQw`nWn~t bl kQrWm sRUptR kr#Nk~ @ls @n` sQwQy yRwO y. epmNk~ @n` @vyQ. 1972 jnrj v&vs~}`@v| q in~psR 1978 v&vs~}`@vhQ q @m| s[hn~ vW a#w~@w~ mh`vQh`rQk xQk;Rn~ vhn~@s~ hwrv#nQ ps~v#nQ sQyvs~vl gw~ pQyvr @h~wO @gn y. a@p~ s~@@vrWx`vy a#w~@w~ @mhQ y. sQAhl j`wQkw~v@y~ pqn@m| vW a#w~@w~ @}rv`q bRqEqhm rFkWm y. aq bthQryn~ h` r`j& @n` vn pVQyn~ InQy` m`nv ayQwQv`sQkm|, bhR sAs~k^wQk, bhR jnv`r\gQk kw` os~@s~ @m| vgn~wQy v&vs~}`@vn~ ivw~ kQrWmt k#skvn~@n~ q e~ @h~wO@vnQ. e~ ivw~ kL @h`w~ a@p~ s~@@vrWx`vy tQk k@lkQn~ m n#wQ vW ynR a#w. sr\vp`k;Qk nQ@y`~jQw kmQtRv q @m| vgn~wQy pQLQg#nWmt ekM vWm vw~mn~ a@p~ pmNk~ @n` v mh`vQh`r@y~ q jyg|hNyk~ @ls s#lkQy h#kQ y.

e@hw~ @m| mwv`q@yhQ, enm| @}rv`q bRqEqhm rFkg#nWm sQAhly` @g~ k`r\yyx`ry @v| y yn~@nhQ, v#qgw~km @w~r#m| g#nWmt @n`h#kQ vR@v`~ @mrt sQtQy h. bQrQw`nWn~ mh`vQh`ryt e@rhQv @gn gQy mwv`qvlQn~ @n`mM gQy avAk bRq~{Qmw~wO q e~ awr vR h. bQrQw`nWn~t @pr yk; @g`~w|yt sm|bn~{ ay q mh` vQh`ryt vQr#q~{ vW a#w. ap klQn~ s[hn~ kr a#wQ prQqQ mh` vQh`ryt InQy` vQ@q~XQk, vQ@X~;@yn~ m qkONR x`rwWy, g#wQ bvk~ a`r$D kQrWmt uw~s`h gw~@w`~ @vwQ. pVRab` (ab` @n` @v|) rjR yk; @g`~w|Qkyn~ q ek~ krmQn~ sQAhl j`wQy @g`dn#gOv q a#w#m| yk; @g`~w|Qkyn~ eyt vQr#q~{ vW a#w. ovRn~ @g~ vQr#q~{w`v sQyvs~ gNn`vk~ p#vwQ bv q @pnW yyQ. ovRn~ @g~ a#w#mkO a@nk~ sQAhlyn~ smg av`h vQv`h @n` vW sQtQn~nt q a#w. a#w#mRn~ @vnw~ ay smM vQv`h vW@mn~ psRv prm|pr`vkQn~ @h`~ @qkkQn~ @h`~ sQAhl vn~nt a#w.

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