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sAs~k^wQy @vns~vWm h` rFkWm

@l`~k@y~ vQvQ{ jnvr\g h` j`wWn~ wm sAs~k^wWn~ a`rk;` kQrWm s[h` v`rNy a#wOU vQvQ{ kYm x`vQw kr a#wQ awr q$nRqE x`vQw krn bv p#h#qQlQ y. e@hw~ @mhQ qW kQv yRwO kr#NR @qkk~ @vyQ. pLmR@vn~ m sAs~k^wQy a`rk;` kQrQm ynR@vn~ aqhs~ krn~@n~ kOmk~ q yn~n wvw~ p#h#qQlQ kL yRwO y. @qvnRv aq v`rNyt vQr#q~{v @mwrm| hVk~ nMn~@n~ a#yQ q yn~n av@b`~{ krgw yRwO y. ehQ qW e@s~ hV ngn~@n~ kvRq yn~n @s`y` b#lQy yRwO y.

sAs~k^wQyk~ a`rk;` kQrWm ynR aq`L sAs~k^wQy @n`@vns~ v pvw~v`@gn y$m @n` @vyQ. vQX~v@y~ kQsQvk~ @n`@vns~ v @n` pvwQn bv sQAhl@y`~ vQ@X~;@yn~ m sQAhl @b_q~{@y`~ qnQwQ. anQw&y g#n nQwr @q@v|@l~ @m@nhQ kQrWmt ugn~vn qhmk~ anRgmny krn~nn~t sAs~k^wQy q @vns~ vn bv amRwO@vn~ kQv yRwO @n` @vyQ. e@s~ nm| sAs~k^wQy a`rk;` kQrQm yn~@nn~ aqhs~ krn~@n~ kOmk~ q? nQr\ml vR sQAhl @b_q~{ sAs~k^wQyk~ @h`~ @vnw~ sAs~k^wQyk~ @h`~ @n`m#w. sAs~k^wQy q @vns~ vn bv apQ av{`rNy krmR.

sQAhl sAs~k^wQy @h`~ @vnw~ sAs~k^wQyk~ @h`~ a`rk;` kQrQm ynR e~ @n`@vns~ v

rFkg#nWm @n` @v|. e~ kL @n`h#kQ k`r\yykQ. e@s~ vRvw~ sAs~k^wQyk~ @vns~ vn a`k`r @vyQ. ehQ qW sAs~k^wQyt hQmQ ann&w`vk~

rF@kn prQqQ @h`~ @n` rF@kn prQqQ @h`~ sAs~k^wQy @vns~ vQy h#kQ y. sAs~k^wQy @vns~ vW@m| qW ann&w`v @n` rF@kyQ nm| ew#n g#tlRvk~ a#w. q$n~ pYX~ny vnR@y~ sAs~k^wQyk ann&w`v rF@kn~@n~ @k@s~ q yn~n y. sQyl~l @vns~ vn~@n~ nm| ann&w`v @vns~ vW@m| a#wQ vrq kOmk~ q$yQ kQsQvkOt pYX~n kL h#kQ y.

sAs~k^wQyk ann&w`v yn~n wWrNy vn~@n~ a@nk~ sAs~k^wWn~t s`@p~k;v y. a@nkOw~ sAs~k^wWn~ q @vns~ @vyQ. e@s~ @vns~ vn kl ym| sAs~k^wQyk~ a@nk~ sAs~k^wWn~ awr kQ[` bsQn~@n~ nm| evQt aq`L sAs~k^wQ@yhQ ann&w`v n#wQ @vyQ. e@s~ m o|n$ m sAs~k^wQyk~ @vns~ vn s~vr$py anRv e@s~w~ n#w~nm| @vns~ vW@m| XWGYw`v anRv ann&w`v @vns~ vn~@n~ q n#wQ q yn~n g#n yRk~wQyRk~w kL h#kQ wWrNykt eLBQy h#kQ y. sAs~k^wWn~ @vns~ vW a#wQ a`k`ry a{&yny kQrW@mn~ a@nk~ sAs~k^wWn~t @mn~ m e~ sAs~k^wQyt q s`@p~k;v ym| sAs~k^wQyk~ ann&w`v rFkgn~@n~ q n#w~q yn~n g#n wWrNykt eLBQy h#kQ y.

mRlQk vX@yn~ gw~ kl sAs~k^wQyk~ wOn~ a`k`rykQn~ @vns~ @vyQ. e~ ax&n~wrv @vns~ vQy h#kQ y. aq`L sAs~k^wQ@yhQ nQr\m`Ny vn a#w#m| @q~ mMQn~ sAs~k^wQy @vns~ vQy h#kQ y. vQvQ{ jnvr\g ekwO vW sQAhlyn~ vWmt @pr, @mhQ vQsR ym| jnvr\gyk~ vQsQn~ v#v| nQr\m`Ny krnR l#bW@mn~ psR v @mrt sAs~k^wQ@yhQ ym| @vns~kmk~ sQqE vn~nt a#w. v#v| nQr\m`Ny pQtrtkQn~ @mrtt l#bRNk~ @n` vn bv @vnw~ rtvl ovRn~ vQsQn~ m nQr\m`Ny krnR l#b a#wQ v#v| @n`m#wQ vW@mn~ p#h#qQlQ @vyQ.

@qvnRv b`hQr sAs~k^wQyk a#w#m| aAgyk~ av@X`~;Ny kr g#nW@mn~ sAs~k^wQyk~ @vns~ vQy h#kQ y. ek~wr` a`k`rykQn~ gw @h`w~ bRqE qhm @mrt sAs~k^wQyt av@X`~;Ny @krW a#w. e@hw~ ehQ qW kQvyRwO vQ@X~; kr#N nm| bRqE qhm ar\{ @@vqQk sAs~k^wQyk nQr\m`Ny vWm @h~wO@vn~ e~ ap rtt mRUmnQn~ m a`gn~wOk @n` vR bv y. bRqE qhm @mrtt h[En~v` qWm hAsy` qQyt q$mWmk~ v#nQ kQYy`vk~ vQy. av@X`~;Ny b`hQr ay @g~ m#qQhw~ vW@mn~ @h`~ @n` vW@mn~ @h`~ vQy h#kQ y. av@X`~;N@yn~ b`hQr sAs~k^wQ@y~ sAkl~py ym|kQsQ @vnskt x`jny vW aq`L sAs~k^wQyt a#wOU @vyQ.

ph@L`s~v#nQ sQyvst @pr x`rw@y~, cWn@y~, lAk`@v| h` @vnw~ rtvl wQbR q$nRm yR@r`~pWy rtvl, mRl qW qkONR yR@r`~pWy rtvl av@X`~;Ny @krQNQ. uq`hrNyk~ @ls gw @h`w~ x`rw@y~ jWvm`n gwQk (Dynamic)- sAkl~pyk~ @ls p#vwQ bQAqEv (XOn&y) yR@r`~pWy sAs~k^wWn~ vQsQn~ av@X`~;Ny @kr#@N~ ajWvW qrqVR s~}QwQk sAkl~pyk~ @ls y. x`rw@y~ XOn&y nQr\m`Ny vR@y~ agyk~ n#wQ e@hw~ ymk~ a#wQ sAkl~pyk~ @ls y. ey x`rwWy @b_q~{yn~ vQsQn~ nQr\m`Ny @kr#NR sAkl~pyk~ vQy. m`{&m|kv`q@y~ XSn&w`v bQAqEv nQr\m`Ny kQrW@m| qW v#qgw~ k`r\yyk~ itR @k@L~ y. e~ sAkl~py cwOs~@k`~tQk n&`@yhQ upw l#bW y.

e@hw~ XOn&y bthQr av@X`~;Ny krnR l#bR@y~ a#rQs~@t`~tlWy q~vQ@k`~tQk n&`y shQw sAs~k^wQyk y. bthQr rtvl bRq~{QmwOn~t pYX~ny vR@y~ kQsQ m agyk~ n#w~nm| eyt ymk~ adR wr@m| sA@k~wyk~ h` sAkl~pyk~ wQbQy h#k~@k~ @k@s~ q yn~n y. kQsQvk~ n#w~nm| kQsQvk~ kOmkt q yn~n ovRn~ @g~ pYX~ny vQy. avs`n@y~ qW sQyvsk pmN sAv`qykQn~ psRv yR@r`~pWy bRq~{Qmw~wO XOn&y wm sAs~k^wQyt av@X`~;Ny kL h. e@hw~ e@s~ @k@L~ XOn&@y~ jWvy mr` qmmQn~ ey s~}QwQk sAkl~pyk~ bvt pw~ krmQnQ. klny x`rw@y~ nQr\m`Ny vW psRv nQv|tn~ h` lyQbQnWtQs~ vQq~vwOn~ vQsQn~ bthQrt h[En~v` @qn lqW. kln@y~ jWvy a#w~@w~ m XSn&yt agyk~ wQbWm h` @n` wQbWm @h~wO@vnQ. e@hw~ nQvRtn~ vQq~vw` vQsQn~ XOn&@yhQ jWvy n#wQ sAs~k^wQykt klny av@X`~;Ny kQrWmt y$@mn~ avklny yn sAkl~py mhw~ ar\bRqykt v&`kSlw~vykt pw~ krnR l#bQNQ.

bRqE qhm sQAhl sAs~k^wQyt av@X`~;Ny kQrW@m| qW @b`~{Q vn~qn`v ekwO krgnR l#bQNQ. sQAhl @b_q~{ sAs~k^wQy ynR a@X`~k @b_q~{ sAs~k^wQ@yhQ pQtpwk~ @n` @vyQ. mh`y`n @b`~{Q sw~w~v sAkl~py sQAhl @}rv`q @b_q~{ sAs~k^wQyt av@X`~;Ny @kr#@N~ mRl~ sAkl~p@yhQ wQbR awQ m`nR;Qk gON b#h#r kQrW@mnQ. e@mn~ m @}rv`qWn~ @g~ @b`~{Q sw~w~v@y`~ ssr gm@nhQ @kLvr bRqE @vwQ. ewO@m`~ mh`y`n@yhQ @mn~ a@nk~ sQylR @qn` nQvn~ qkQn wOr# bl` @n` sQtQwQ. @}rv`q@yhQ @b`~{Qsw~w~v@y`~ bRqErj`Nn~ vhn~@s~t vn~qn`m`n krn p^}g~jn@ykQ. @m| kr#NRvlQn~ p#h#qQlQ vn~@n~ ek~ sAs~k^wQyk sAkl~pyk~ wvw~ sAs~k^wQykt b`hQr m#qQhw~vWmk~ a#wQ v @h`~ n#wQ v @h`~ av@X`~;Ny @k@rn a`k`ry y. av@X`~;N@yn~ psRv aq`L sAs~k^wQ@yhQ ym| @vnsk~ vQy h#kQ y.

wOn~vnRv sAs~k^wQyk~ @vns~ vn~@n~ sAs~k^wQk ytw~vQjQwv`qy vQsQn~ a{QpwQv`qW sAs~k^wQyk a#w#m| aAg @vnw~ sAs~k^wQyk~ mw s^jRv @h`~ vkYv @h`~ p#tvW@mnQ. anRkrNy sQqE vn~@n~ q @mhQ avs~}`vk~ @ls y. mQnQsRn~ anRkrNy kQrWmt @pl@Bn~@n~ wmn~t vd` InQy` ihL sAs~k^wQyk lk;N y. ihL sAs~k^wQyk~ ynR sAs~k^wQk ytw~vQjQwv`qy (a{QpwQv`qy) vQsQn~ nQr\m`Ny @k@rn sAkl~pykQ. bthQr m`nv vQq&`Z@ykO vR @rd|fWl~d| mhw` vQsQn~ InQy` mh` sm|pYq`y (Great tradition)- h` cRl sm|pYq`y (Little tradition)- yn sAkl~p nQr\m`Ny @kr#@N~ sAs~k^wQk a{QpwQv`qy yn~n vs` q$mWmt y. aq @mrt sQrQw InQy` ugw~wO @rdQfWl~d| vQq~vw` @g~ sAkl~py anRkrNy kL mh`c`r\y eqQrQvWr src|cn~qY mhw` anRv ymQn~ mh` sm|pYq`yk~ h` cRl sm|pYq`yk~ g#n kw` krwQ. @rdQfWl~d| mhw` @g~ e~ h` sm|bn~{ lQpQy pv` kQyv` n#wQ @m`vRhR @m| sAkl~p anRkrNy krn~@n~ wmn~ @g~ sAs~k^wQy InQy` phw~ sAs~k^wQyk~ y#yQ upkl~pny krmQnQ. sAgWw@y~ @v|v` @vnw~ @k;wYyk @v|v` x`rwWy mh` sm|pYq`y @h`~ bthQr mh` sm|pYq`y @h`~ g#n kQyvn~nvRnt @rdQfWl~d| mhw` kQy` a#w~@w~ kOmk~ q yn~n pQLQb[v kQsQ m av@b`~{yk~ n#w.

aq @mrt sm`j@y~ vQX`l pQrQsk~ bthQryn~ anRkrNy krn~@n~ sAs~k^wQk ytw~ vQjQwv`qyt yt @vmQnQ. @m`vRn~ @gn~ a#w#@mk~ @q~Xp`ln@yhQ qW sm`jv`qWn~ @ls @pnW sQtQwQ. e@hw~ bthQr sAs~k^wQk ytw~vQjQwv`qyt hQs nmn @m`vRn~ a{Qr`j& vQ@r`~{Wn~ @h`~ ytw~vQjQwv`qyt vQr#q~{ vRvn~ @h`~ @ls @pnW sQtQn~@n~ @k@s~ q? ytw~ vQjQwv`q@yhQ xy`nk m sArcky sAs~k^wQk sArcky @vyQ. anRk`rkyn~ lv` ym| rtk sAs~k^wQy @vns~ krvWm vkY kQYy`vkQ. bQrQw`nQ@y`~ a{&`pny mMQn~ h` vrpYs`q lw~ pQrQsk~ bQhQ kQrW@mn~ mRl qW wm sAs~k^wQy bl@yn~ ap mw p#tvR h. e~ @q~Xp`ln a`{Qpw&y os~@s~ sQqE vRvkQ. e@hw~ bthQr a{&`pnyk~ lw~ pQrQsk~ h` vrpYs`qQwyn~ a#wQ kQrW@mn~ psRv @q~Xp`ln a`{Qpw&y avm mtQtmk wQbQy qW q ovRn~ lv` wm sAs~k^wQy anRkrNy krvW@m| h#kQy`v bthQryn~ swO vQy.

bthQryn~ ap rtvlt nQqhs qEn~@n~ s^jRv m @q~Xp`ln a`{Qpw&y pvw~v`@gn y$@m| h#kQy`v InQy` @qv#nQ @l`~k yRq~{@yn~ psRv ovRn~ awQn~ kYm@yn~ gQlQhW gQy b#vQnQ. e@hw~ ovRhR a`r\}Qk ytw~vQjQwv`qy h` sAs~k^wQk ytw~vQjQwv`qy qQgQn~ qQgt m @gn gQy h. sRqE a{&`pn nQl{`rQn~ vQsQn~ sks~ krn lq p`Tm`l` h` p`sl~ v&Rhy apQ wvmw~ pvw~v`@gn ymR. w#nQn~ w#n sRU @vns~km| sQqE vW a#wQ nmRw~ hr@yn~ @vnsk~ sQqE vW n#w. e~ hry pvw~v`@gn ynR lbn~@n~ bthQr ac|cRv wOL m nQr\m`Ny @kr#NR nQl{`rQn~ vQsQnQ. e~ nQl{`rQn~ qn~n` ek m @qy anRkrNy kQrWm y.

aq @mrt sAs~k^wQk ytw~vQjQwv`qy pY{`n vX@yn~ m pvw~v`@gn yn~@n~ r#pv`hQnW n`LQk` os~@s~ y. @mrt sAs~k^wQy qQy krn v#dsthn~ @m| n`LQk` mMQn~ pYc`ry @k@ryQ. e~ awr ovRhR sQylR pv| vs` g#nWmt @mn~ {r\m@q~Xn` q pYc`ry krwQ. @m| r$pv`hQnQ n`LQk`vl ayQwQkr#@v`~ q InQy` v#dsthn~ nQpqvn~@n`~ q sQAhl sAs~k^wQyt vQr#q~{ v kQYy` krwQ. @myQn~ aqhs~ @k@rn~@n~ sQAhl sAs~k^wQyt vQr#q~{ v ktyRwO krn~@n~ a#w#m| r$pv`hQnW n`LQk` pmNk~ @n` @vyQ. a#w#m| gOvn~ vQqElQ n`LQk` q vQlQ bQy @n`m#wQ v @m| k`r\yy@yhQ nQrw vnR qk~nt l#@byQ. @mhQ qW InQy` v#dsthn~ nQpqvn~nn~ y#yQ ovRnt kQyn~@n~ ovRn~ nQpqvn v#dsthnk~ @n`m#wQ b#vQnQ. ovRn~ krn~@n~ anRkrNyk~ pmNkQ. @m| a#w#m| InQy` v#dsthnk~ v`rNy kQrW@m| avX&w`v p#n nMW. e@s~ v`rNy @n` kL @h`w~ sQAhl sAs~k^wQy a`rk;` kr g#nWm iw` qE;~kr vnR a#w. enm| sQAhl sAs~k^wQ@y~ ann&w`v

rFkg#nWm awQmhw~ qE;~kr k`r\yyk~ vnR a#w. aq gSvn~ vQqElQ n`LQk` os~@s~ kw` krn~@n~ iAgQrQsQ vcn @y`qmQn~ pmNk~ @n` @vyQ. e~ ksQkbl~ nQ@v|qk@y`~ h` nQ@v|qQk`@v`~ iAgQrQsQ sm|pYq`@yn~ sQAhl kw` krwQ.

mh`c`r\y nlQn~ q sQl~v`