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q$nRm| a`{Qpw&y kQYy`w~mk vn a`k`ry pQLQb[ ym| q$nRmk~ @m| lQpQ @pL kQyvn~nn~t q$n~ l#bW a#w#yQ sQwmQ. bthQr q$nRm ap mw a{QpwQv`qW a`k`rykQn~ p#tvW@m| qW @y`q`gn~n` ek~ kr#Nk~ vn~@n~ bthQr q$nRm ek m sw& q$nRm bv y. sw& q$nRm ynR bthQr nQr\m`Ny @k@rn bthQr (s~v`x`vQk) vQq&`v h` e~ psRps yn bthQr sm`jyWy vQq&` h` m`nv X`s~wY y. a@nk~ q$nRm| ek~@k`~ InQy` s`m|pYq`yQk q$nRm| y#yQ nm| @krW b`l~qE @k@ryQ. e@s~w~ n#w@h`w~ mQ}&`vn~ @ls g#@nyQ.

bthQr q$nRm pmNk~ sr\vk`lWn @l`~kyt m @p`qE q$nRm @ls iqQrQpw~ @k@ryQ. ap klQn~ q s[hn~ kr a#wQ prQqQ e~ q$nRm iqQrQpw~ @k@rn~@n~ InQy` v`s~wvQk q#nRmk~ @ls y. e~ nQrWk;ky`@gn~ s~v`yw~w q$nRmk~ y#yQ q in~ InQy` y}`r\}y @hLQvn~@n~ y#yQ q bthQr@y`~ apt kQy` @qwQ. y}`r\}yk~ @hLQkrn InQy` v`s~wvQk q$nRmk~ @ls evQt e~ q$nRm @l`~kyt m @p`qE @vyQ. e@hw~ e~ q$nRm bthQryn~t, enm| bthQr kQYs~wQy`nQ nRwnw~v@y~ bthQryn~t, s`@p~k; vR q$nRmk~ bv ovRhR apt @n` kQywQ. bthQr kQYs~wQy`nQ nRwnw~v@y~ gWYk yR@qv| kQYs~wQy`nQ cQn~wn@y~, yR@qv| kQYs~wQy`nQ sAs~k^wQ@y~ q$nRm mRU @l`~kyt m @p`qE q$nRmk~ bv @l`~ky`t m e~w~wO gn~v` a#w~@w~ bthQr ytw~vQjQwv`qy os~@s~ y.

@mhQ qW a#w#m| pVQykO wm pVQ bv @pn~vmQn~ bthQr vQq&`w~mk q$nRm sr\vk`lWn @n` @v| y#yQ q e~ klQn~ klt @vns~vn~@n~ y#yQ q kQynR a#w. uq`hrNyk~ @ls a`@l`~ky gmn~ kQrWm pQLQb[ nQv|tn~ @g~ lvk pYv`qy (Corpusceluar Theory)- psRv wrAg pYv`qy (Wave Theory)- mMQn~ vQs~}`pny vR a`k`ry ovRn~ @pn~v` @qnR a#w. e~ ar\}@yn~ gw~ kl bthQr pYv`q sr\vk`lWn @n` @v|. nQv|tn~ @g~ gOr#w~v`kr\;N pYv`qy @vnRvt aq a#w~@w~ ayQn~s~tyQn~ @g~ s`{`rN s`@p~k;w` pYv`qy y. bthQr q$nRm sr\vk`lWn vn~@n~ e~ ar\}@yn~ @n` vn bv p#h#qQlQ y. e~ e~ pYv`q k`ly sWmQw vRvw~ pYv`q ekt gw~vQt e~ s$m k`lykt m @p`qE @vyQ. bthQr q$nRm sr\vk`lWn y#yQ kQy#@vn vQt e~ e~ pYv`qy @n` v sms~w q$nRm m ekt g#@nyQ.

e~ wvqErtw~ InQy` s`m|pYq`yQk q$nRm (Traditional Knowledge)- smM sAsn~qny kQrW@mn~ qw h#kQ y. ehQ qW s`m`n&@yn~ phw s[hn~ kr#NR s`m|pYq`yQk q$nRm sm|bn~{@yn~ kQy#@vyQ. s`m|pYq`yQk q$nRm @ls iqQrQpw~ @k@rn q$nRm ek~wr` k`lykt ek~wr` @q~Xykt pmNk~ sWm` @vyQ. bthQryn~ p#mQNWmt @pr lAk`@v| p#vwQ q$nRm ekl lAk`vt pmNk~ sWm` @vyQ. e~ q$nRm lAk`@v| vRvw~ aqt vlAgO q$nRmk~ @n` @vyQ. s`m|pYq`yQk q$nRm yl~p#ngQy q$nRmk~ @vyQ. bthQr a#w#m| pYv`qyk~ yl~p#ngQy ekk~ vQy h#kQ y. e@hw~ bthQr q$nRm sms~wyk~ @ls yl~p#n @n` yyQ.

aq a#w#m| vQt InQy` s`m|pYq`yQk q$nRm x`vQw` @n`krn~@n~ q$yQ @mhQ qW pYX~nyk~ mwO vQy h#kQ y. apQ uq`hrNyk~ @ls x`vn`v gnQmR. aq bthQr@y`~ q x`vn`v @y`q` gnQwQ. e@hw~ bthQryn~ x`vn`v @y`q` gn~@n~ @b_q~{yn~ @mn~ nQvn~ q$kWm mRl~ kr@gn @h`~ @@vqQkyn~ @y`~g ax&`s krn a`k`ryt bYh~mn~ smM ek~vWmt bl`@p`@r`w~wO@vn~ @h`~ @n` @vyQ. (bYh~mn~ smM ekwO vWm yn~n m aq~@@vw @v|q`n~wyt anRv v#rqQ y. apQ @mhQ qW ev#nQ sQyRm| w#n~ p@skt qmmR.) bthQryn~t x`vn`v avX& vn~@n~ mmw~vy v#dQ kr g#nWmt mQs adR kQrWmt @h`~ n#wQ kQrWmt @h`~ @n` @vyQ.

aq bthQryn~ awr x`vn`v InQy` s`m|pYq`yQk q$nRmkt ayw~ vRvk~ @n` @vyQ. ovRn~ qBqQv, x`rw@y~ (in~qQy`v, x`rwy, qBqQv ynR ek m rtk~ @n` @v|.) bthQryn~ InQy` s`m|pYq`yQk q$nRmk wQbR x`vn`v ovRn~ @g~ sAs~k^wQyt av@X`~;Ny kr@gn e~ ovRn~ @g~ q$nRmk~ bvt pw~kr@gn a#w. q$n~ x`vn`v, enm| bthQryn~ @g~ x`vn`v @l`~kyt m @p`qE vRvkQ. bthQryn~ vQsQn~ m a#wQkrn lq sm`jyWy @vns~km|vl pYwQPlyk~ @ls aq a#wQ m`nsQk a`wwQ smny kQrWmt x`vn`v @y`q` g#nWm h` a`n`p`nswQy v#dWm awr a#w~@w~ @kwrm| @vnsk~ q?

mQ}&` @ls slk` ivw q$@mn q$nRm g#n apQ kw` @n` krmR. @m| mQ}&` ynR@vn~ h[En~vn~@n~ q mQnQsRn~ vQsQn~ ym| pYX~nvlt @qn lq, enm| nQr\m`Ny krn lq pQLQwOr# @vyQ. e~v`t ym|kQsQ pqnmk~ @vyQ. sQAhb`hR kw`v mQ}&`vk~ @ls @b`@h`~ @qn` slkwQ. e@hw~ sQAhb`hR kw`v q @vnw~ bthQr vQq&` kw` @mn~ m pYv`qyk~ bv apQ k@lkt ihw qW @pn~v` qEn~@nmR. nQv|tn~ @g~ gOr#w~v`kr\;N pYv`qy q ym| pYX~nykt @qn lq pQLQwOrk~ pmNk~ @vyQ. ayQn~s~tyQn~ pVQvry`@gn~ psRv avX& nm| nQv|tn~ @g~ gOr#w~v`kr\;N pYv`qyt q mQ}&`vk~ y#yQ kQv h#kQ y.

@m| lQpQ @p@LhQ armRN bthQr q$nRm ynR wvw~ ek~ q$nRmk~ mQs ek m q$nRm @n` vn bv @pn~v` qWmw~ vQvQ{ @k;wYvl a@p~ sAs~k^wQy mw pqnm| v a@p~ pYv`q nQr\m`Ny kQrWmw~ y. bthQr kQYs~wQy`nQ nRwnw~vy pQLQb[ v m a@p~ pYv`qyk~ @vyQ. e~ a#wQ vR@N~ @k@s~ q ehQ pqnm kOmk~ q a`qQy apQ q$ntmw~ s`kc|C` kr a#w~@wmR. mRU mhw~ bthQr sm`jy m aq bthQr gWYk yR@qv| kQYs~wQy`nQ cQn~wny mw pqnm| @vyQ. e~ cQn~wny pLmR@vn~ iw`lQ@y~ nQr\m`Ny vW psRv uwOr# yR@r`~pyt gl` gQ@y~ y. e~ cQn~wny mw pqnm| v yR@qv| kQYs~wQy`nQ sAs~k^wQy bQhQ vQy. @m| cQn~wn@yhQ h` sAs~k^wQ@yhQ sm`jy (sms~wy) @vnRvt pRq~gly` is~mwO vWm, @p_q~glQk in~qYQy pQnvWmt idkd s#pyWm h` avX& psRbQm sks~kQrWm, @p_q~glQkw~vy vr\{ny kQrWm, pRq~glyn~ ekQ@nk`@gn~ @vn~kQrWm, qYv& q a@nk~ qYv&yn~ @gn~ @vn~kQrWm, pRq~glyn~ qYv&@yn~, vQ@X~;@yn~ id@mn~ @vn~kQrWm, mns h` qYv& @vn~kQrWm, e@s~ @vn~krn k`tWsWy w`p~py, sAyRk~w cQn~wny @vnRvt vQyRk~w cQn~wny @y`q` g#nWm, sAs~@l~;Nyt vd` vQX~@l~;Ny v#qgw~ @ls s#lkWm a`qQy @vyQ. @m| awr ym| ym| a`kl~p q @vyQ.

bthQr vQq&`v, @rprm`qE pYwQsAs~krNy h` vQvQ{ kQYs~wQy`nQ a`gm|, {npwQ kYmy a`qQy bQhQvR@y~ @mv#nQ psRbQmk y. s~vsQq~{`w~mk vQ{Q kYmy, u_nQw v`qy a`qQy q klQn~ s[hn~ kL gWYk yR@qv| kQYs~wQy`nQ cQn~wn@yhQ pYwQPl @vyQ. e~ cQn~wn@yhQ n&`y a#rQs~@t`~tlWy n&`y @vyQ. gWYk yR@qv| kQYs~wQy`nQ cQn~wny @r\KWy cQn~wnyk~ @vyQ. a@p~ pYv`qvlt anRv a`gmk~ vQsQn~ sAs~k^wQyk~ bQhQ @k@rnR @n` v sAs~k^wQyk~ vQsQn~ a`gmk~ bQhQ @k@ryQ. bthQr @rprm`qE pYwQsAs~krNy a#wQ vW kQYs~wQy`nQ sAs~k^wQyk~ bQhQ vRv` @n` v ph@L`s~v#nQ sQyv@s~ a#rBRNR cQn`wn vQp~lvyk bQhQ vR sAs~k^wQyk~ mMQn~ kQYs~wQy`nQ a`gm| a#wQ @krQNQ. mQn~ aqhs~ krn~@n~ a`gm| a#wQvW@mn~ psRv e~ a`gm| vQsQn~ e~ bQhQ @kr#NR l#bR sAs~k^wWn~ @vns~ @n` krnv` yn~n @n` @v|.

ev#nQ nQgmnykt eLBQy h#k~@k~ @r\KWy cQn~wnyk y. gWYk yR@qv| kQYs~wQy`nQ cQn~wn@yhQ mRlk~ a#w. ev#nQ cQn~wnyk sAs~k^wQykQn~ a#wQ vn a`gmk~ vQsQn~ sAs~k^wQy @vns~ @k@rn~@n~ y#yQ @n` kQv h#kQ y. e@hw~ sQAhl @b_q~{ cQn~wny ckWYy @vyQ. sAs~k^wQyk p#n ngQn a`gmkt psRv sAs~k^wQy q @vns~ kL h#kQ y. a@p~ pYv`qvlt anRv bRqE qhm bQhQ vR@y~ ar\{ @@vqQk sm`jyk e@hw~ pY`g~ a`r\y sAs~k^wQyk~ psRbQm| krgnQmQnQ. @l_kQk vX@yn~ gw~ kl bRqE qhmQn~ phr v#qE@n~ bmRNn~t h` @@vqQkyn~t y. sQqEhw~ kOmr# upn~@n~ a`r\y sAs~k^wQk a`{Qpw&yt kYm@yn~ yt vWm a#rBRNR an`r\y sm`jyk y. ewOm` mRlQk vX@yn~ pqnm| vR@y~ an`r\y sAs~k^wQyk y. (an`r\y ynR qYvQd @n` vn bv q$nRm| u@qs` av{`rNy kL yRwO y.) an`r\y sAs~k^wQyk a#wQ vRNR bRqE qhm e~ sm`jyt q blp$m| kQrWmt smw~ vQy.

ap klQn~ q s[hn~ kr a#wQ a`k`ryt bRqEn~ vhn~@s~ ekl a`r\yyn~ vQsQn~ @y`q` gnR l#bRNR a#w#m| sAkl~pvlt @vnw~ ar\}k}n qEn~ h. a`r\y h` bY`h~mN yn pqvlt pv` un~vhn~@s~ @vnw~ ar\}k}n qEn~ h. un~vhn~@s~t a`r\y ynR @g`~wQYk n`myk~ @n` vW y. un~vhn~@s~ @g~ a`r\y@y`~ nQvn a@p~k;` kL h. a`r\y`;~T`AgQk m`r\gy nQvn s[h` mQs a`r\y @g`~wY@yhQ sRb vQhrNy s[h` @n` vW y. e@mn~ m kQsQvkO upwQn~ bmR@NkO vn~@n~ n#w#yQ q bRqEn~ vhn~@s~ vq`L h.

@myQn~ p#h#qQlQ vn~@n~ bRqEn~ vhn~@s~ a`r\y @@vqQk sm`jy udR ytQkOr# kQQrWmt ktyRwO kL bv y. bRqEn~ vhn~@s~ wrm| a`r\yyn~t sAs~k^wQk v phr qEn~ @vnw~ kQsQ@vk~ @n` vR h. bRqE qhm an`r\y sAs~k^wQ@yhQ upw lb` in~ psR e~ an`r\y sm`jy h` sAs~k^wQy pmNk~ @n` v a`r\y sAs~k^wQy h` sm`jy q @vns~ @k@L~ y. bQlQ pRj` kL @@vqQkyn~ psR k@lk avQhQAs`v @qst @y`mR krnR l#bR@y~ bRqE qhm vQsQnQ. ap a@p~ pYv`q nQr\m`Ny krn~@n~ ckQYy cQn~wnyk y. ~ A vQsQn~ B mw q B vQsQn~ C mw q C vQsQn~ A mw q blp$m| a#wQ kQrWm @r\KWy cQn~wnykt pth#NQ vRv q ckWYy cQn~wnykt pth#nQ @n` @vyQ.

vw~mn~ bthQr sm`jy a`rm|x vR@y~ @k@s~ q yn~nw~ ehQ armRNk~ @ls wm sAs~k^wQy, a`r\}Qky h` @q~Xp`lny (v&Rh) a@nk~ rtvlt h` sm`jvlt bl@yn~ @h`~ @vnw~ kYmykQn~ @h`~ p#tvWmw~ pQLQb[ apt a@p~ m vR pYv`q a#w. bthQr ytw~vQjQwv`qy p#wQr vWm bthQr sAs~k^wQ@y~ aAgyk~ pmNk~ @vyQ. bthQr sAs~k^wQk, a`r\}Qk h` @q~Xp`ln ytw~vQjQwv`q@y~ mRl ew#n y. k`l~ m`k~s~ pVQvry` @m| sQyl~l a`r\}Qkyt u_nny kQrWmt uw~s`h gw~@w~ y. ohR ytw~vQjQwv`qyw~ psRk@lk @lnQn~ pdQvry` a{Qr`j&v`qyw~ vQs~wr @k@L~ a`r\}Qk kr#NR pqnm| kr@gn y.

e@hw~ sQyl~l a`r\}Qkyt u_nny kQrWm kL h#k~kk~ @n` @v|. m`k~s~v`qy @r\KWy cQn~wny mw pqnm| @vyQ. e@hw~ a#w#m| avs~}`vk gWYk yR@qv| kQYs~wQy`nQ cQn~wn@yn~ k#dWmt q m`k~s~v`qy vQsQn~ uw~s`h @gn l#b a#w. gWYk yR@qv| cQn~wn@yn~ k#dW yR@r`~pWy sn~qr\x@yhQ m`k~s~ pdQvry`t y$mt wQbR@N~ ek~ cQn~wnyk~ @vw pmNkQ. e~ k@w`~lQk cQn~wnyyQ. m`k~s~v`qy @mn~ m f#sQs~tQv`qy q k@w`~lQk cQn~wny mw pqnm| @vyQ. yR@r`~pWy sn~qr\x@yhQ gWYk yR@qv| kQYs~wQy`nQ cQn~wnyt axQ@y`~g el~l vR@y~ k@w`~lQk cQn~wn@yn~ pmNkQ. e@hw~ e~ cQn~wny ph@L`s~v#nQ sQyv@s~ sQt m pr`jy lbmQn~ wQbRNQ. k@w`~lQk cQn~wny mw pqnm| vR m`k~s~v`qyw~ f#sQs~tQv`qyw~ avs`n@y~ qW bthQr kQYs~wQy`nQ nRwnw~vyt pr`jy vWm pRqEmyk~ @n` @vyQ.

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