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@m`rghkn~q jl`Xy sQhQnyk~ pmN q?

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mhw~ vR a@p~k;`vn~ wb`@gn @g`dng`gw~ @y`~{ @v|lQ wm bl`@p`@r`w~wO itR @n` krn bv @wv#nQ @l`v rtvl~ @w~r#m| gn~n` vQt @b`@h`~ @syQn~ m pYm`q vW v#dQ y. 1960 qW v#d nQm vR cWn@y~ s#@mn~;Qy` @v|l~l e~ s[h` kqQm uq`hrNykQ. cWn@y~ sRpYkt kh gM (@h`v#n~@h`~ gM) hrh` mWtr\ 106k~ ust @g`dn#gONR @y`~{ @v|l~@ln~ a#wQ vRNR jl`Xy vsr hwrk qW vQX`l vX@yn~ @r`n~mdQn~ pQrW gQ@y~ y. jl`Xy mw w#bR qhskOw~ sAvr\{n@y~ a@p~k;`vn~ @r`n~md wOL gQlW gQ@y~ y. v`rQ kr\m`n~wy pQLQb[ s`dm|br iwQh`sykt hQmQkm| kQyR cWny bthQryn~ @g~ mh` @v|lQ w`k;N@y~ ugOlt hsR vQy. @myt amwrv in~qQy`@v| 1970 qW iqQ kL XYW r`m| @sg`r\ @v|l~lt q aw~ vR@y~ @mv#nQ m irNmkQ.

nQvr\wn kl`p@y~ iqQ kr a#wQ @b`@h`~ mh` prQm`N jl`Xvl a`yR k`ly iw` m @ktQ bv q$n~ q$n~ p#v@syQ. mh` @v|lQ iqQ kQrW@m| w`k;Ny a`rm|x vR@y~ nQvr\wn kl`p@yn~ pQtw sAvr\{Qw rtvl y. em kl`p@yhQ p`;`N rs`ynQkv jWr\Ny vn~@n~ iw` @smQnQ. e@hw~ nQvr\wn kl`p@y~ qW @mm p`;`N jWr\Ny iw` @v|gvw~ bv pr\@y~;kyQn~ pvs` wQ@b|. @m| nQs` nQvr\wn kl`pWy rtvl jl`Xvl @r`n~md w#n~pw~ vWm vQX`l vX@yn~ sQqE @v|.

vsr 3000k iwQh`syk~ pRr` @hL@y`~ v`rQ w`k;n@y~ pYmRK@y~ vR h. @l`v mvQw kL v#v| pq~{wQyk~ @mn~ m a#L m`r\g pq~{wQyk~ q ovRhR nQr\m`Ny k@L`~ y. ewnQn~ @n` n#vwW asl~v#sQ rtvlt pv` a@p~ v`rQ w`k;Ny lb` qEn~@n`~ y. @s`b` qhmt gr# krmQn~ wQrs`rv @g`dn#gS jl XQ;~t`c`ry @l`~k iwQh`sy wOL XYW lAk`@v| s`dm|bry vQy. e@hw~ @m| sQyl~lt gr# @n` kL vQj`wQk bl@v|g mMQn~ @m@hyvRNR anRk`rkv`qW p`lk@y`~ @m| v`rQ w`k;Ny kYm@yn~ vns` qmn~nt ptn~ gw~ h. nQqhsQn~ psR a`rm|x kL (1978) mhv#lQ sAvr\{n v&`p`ry ehQ uc|cwm avs~}`v vQy. ek~ pskQn~ mhv#lQ jl`XvlQn~ aq k[Ekryt xS km|p` wr\jnyk~ el~l v wQ@b|. s#lsRm| kL prQqQ jl`X jl@yn~ pQrvWm sQhQnyk~ bvt pw~ v a`@p~k;Qw pYwQl`x @n` l#bW yn ww~w~vyk~ nQr\m`Ny vW wQ@b|. jl`X iqQkQrWm @vnR@vn~ jWvQw k`ly wOL upy`gw~ sQyl~l k#p kL @k`w~m@l~, hMOrn~@kw, vlp@n~ v#nQ pY@q~Xvl jWvw~ vR pvRl~ 18000kt a{Qk pYm`Nyk~ vQyLQ kl`py wOL sAvr\{n an`}yQn~ bvt pw~ kr wQ@b|. sAvr\{n

vQj~j`kr#@v`~ mhv#lQ@yn~ @n` n#vwW sbrgmR@v| iqQ kL smnL v#vw~, r#hR@N~ iqQ kL lENRgm|@v@hr jl`Xyw~ prQsry @mn~ m jn jWvQwy q v#nsR s`pyk~ bvt pw~ v wQ@b|. prQsry v&`kOl vW n`y y$m|, xS cln, @s`~q`p`lEv, lvNWkrNy, @r`n~md w#n~pw~ vWm a`qW qhskOw~ v&sn mh` prQm`n jl`Xvl nQvRn~ s@h`~qryn~ bvt pw~ v j`wQk a`r\}Qkyt brk~ vW wQ@b|.

mhv#lQ@yn~, smnL v#@vn~ h` lENRgm|@v@hrQn~ p`dm| i@gn @n` gw~ p`lkyQn~ q$n~ @m`rghkn~q mh` smRqYy g#n pRrs`rm| @qdWmt ptn~@gn wQ@b|. @m| q$v#n~w vQn`Xy pQLQb[v pYbl hVk~ n#gWmt @m| @h`[ m k`ly bvt av{`rNy kL yRwO y. vQ@X~;@yn~ yl~ p#n gQy prQsr blp$m| wk~@s~r# v`r\w`vk~ mw kQrWmt nQymQw uk~w v&`p^wQ@yn~ a#wQ vn ahQwkr blp$m| jn jWvQwyw~, prQsryw~ @qplE krn ayRr# pQLQb[v @mmgQn~ aqhsk~ lb`gw h#kQ y.

@y`~jQw v&`p^wQ@y~ armRNR

@mm @y`~jQw v&`p^wQ@yn~ itR kr g#nWmt a@p~k;Qw armRNR kQhQpyk~ prQsr blp$m| wk~@s~r# v`r\w`@v| qk~v` wQ@b|.

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@myt amwrv m`w@l~, anRr`{pRr, @p`@L`n~nr#v h` wQYkON`mly pY@q~Xyn~hQ g^hs~} jl prQ@x`~jny sh kr\m`n~w s[h` avX& jly s#pyWm q (q$nt qQnkt x`vQw @k@rn Gn mWtr 78816k~ vR jl pYm`Ny Gn mQtr\ 253310 qk~v` vr\{ny kQrWm) wvw~ armRNk~ vW wQ@b|.

uk~w v`r\w`@v| qk~v` a#wQ wvw~ armRNk~ vn~@n~ jl vQqElQbl uw~p`qnyyQ. @mg`@v`tQ 20k vQqElQ blyk~ nQpqvWmt a@p~k;` kr a#wQ awr v`r\;Qkv lbn pYwQl`xy r#pQyl~ mQlQyn 200k~ bv upkl~pny kr wQ@b|.

iqQkQrWmt @y`~jQw jl`X

@m`rghkn~q jl`Xy - n`ulw~ a#lh#rw~ awr hWn~ gM amRNt kQ.mQ. 1.8k~ pmN ihLQn~ aBn~gM hrh` iqQ @v|. ey @v|lQ wOnkQn~ smn~vQw vn awr pY{`n @v|l~@l~ qQg mWtr\ 490kQ. usw~ mWtr 61kQ. @qvn h` @wvn @v|lQ pQLQ@vLQn~ mQtr\ 62.5 h` 42.0kQ. jl`Xyt yt vn mRU xSmQ pYm`Ny vr\g kQ.mQ. 40.5kQ. @b`~vw#n~n jl`X@yn~ bsQn` jly q @y`~jQw @m`rghkn~q jl`Xyt ekwO kQrWmt s#lsRm| kr a#wQ awr mRU jl {`rQw`v ak~kr adQ 692000kQ.

pl~@l~gm jl`Xy - a#lh#r pl~@l~gm m`r\g@y~ kQ.mQ. 49 asl kU gM hrh` @m| jl`Xy iqQ @v|. krqmRl~l, @g`~n@vl, pl~@l~gm, mQnQrAk#tQy, hl~mQnQy h` gM@hn~vl gY`m nQl{`rW @k`tQT`s hy mRUmnQn~ m jl`Xyt yt @v|. gl~ pQrvR pY{`n @v|l~@l~ mRqE@n~ qQg mWtr\ 546kQ. us mWtr 67k~ vn awr @v|l~l mRqE@n~ pLl mQtr 8kQ. jl p#wOr#m vr\g kQ.mQ. 8.4kQ. pRr\N jl mtQt@m| qW jl {`rQw`v ak~kr adQ 216000k~ bvt wk~@s~r# kr wQ@b|.

@y`~jQw v&`p^wQ@y~ p`rQsrQk g#tlE

@m`grghkn~q h` pl~@lgm jl`Xvlt avX& jl pYm`Ny lb`g#nWm s[h` vn s#lsRm|kr#vn~ @g~ aqhs qvl~ hWnyk~ vnR nQs#k y. @mm jl`Xvlt avX& jly aBn~gM h` kUgM @p`~;k pY@q~Xvlt l#@bn jl@yn~ q, @p`l~@g`l~@ln~ hrv` aBn~ gMt evn jl@yn~ q lb` g#nWmt nQymQw y. kU gM h` aBn~ gM @p`~;k pY@q~X@y~ jl pYm`Ny uprQm vn~@n~ vsr phkt s#ryk~ pmNQ. vQX`lw~vy awQn~ gw~ kl @m`rghkn~q jl`Xy pr`kYm smRqYy @mn~ ps~ gONyk~ vQX`l @v|. e~ anRv @mm @y`~jn` kYmy jl@yn~ pQrvQy h#kQ vn~@n~ p@hn~ ekk~ pmNQ. 1996n~ psR vQk~@t`~rQy` jl`Xy mRUmnQn~ m pQrW a#w~@w~ 2006 vr\;@y~ qW pmNQ. eyQn~ @pnW yn~@n~ vsr 10k~ pRr`vt vQk~@t`~rQy` jl`Xy pQrvWmt pYm`Nvw~ jl pYm`Nyk~ l#bW @n`m#wQ bv @n` @v| q? @ww~ kl`py wOL pQhQt` a#wQ vQk~@t`~rQy` jl`X@y~ ww~w~vy ey nm| vQyLQ kl`p@y~ iqQ kQrWmt @y`~jQw @m`rghkn~q mh` smRqYy g#n kvr nm| kw` q? s`m`n&@yn~ vQyLQ kl`p@y~ v`r\;Qk vr\;`pwny mQ.mQ. 1500k~ h` v`;~pWkrNy ihL agyk~ g#nWm wOL @m`rghkn~q jl`Xy jl@yn~ pQrvWm itR @n` vn sQhQnyk~ pmNk~ vnR a#w.

@mm pY@q~Xyt @qvn an~wr\ @m`~sm| k`l@y~ uprQm vr\;`pwnyk~ l#@bn awr XYW lAk`v hrh` gmn~ krn nQvr\wn v`sRLQvl qkONR gmn~ m`r\gy v#tW a#wQ kl`py q mWt smp`wv pQhQt` wQ@b|. e~ @h~wO@vn~ pr`kYm smRqYy @mn~ ps~ gONyk~ vQX`l jl`Xyk~ nQr\m`Ny kr vsr qhykt psRv jly ekwO kQrWmt wWrNy kQrWm p`rQsrQk vX@yn~ @mn~ m a`r\}Qk vX@yn~ q nQ;~Pl kQYy`vkQ. eyQn~ vQX`l pYm`Nyk~ ap@w~ yn awr kOd` v#v| vQX`l pYm`Nyk~ vQn`X vWm q @n`v#L#k~vQy h#k~kkQ. e@hw~ em kOd` v#v| sAvr\{ny kr @g`vWn~t jly lb` qWm @mm vQn`Xk`rW v&`p^wQyt vd` qhs~ gONykQn~ Plq`yk bv @pn~v` qQy h#kQ y. awWw@y~ ptn~ m a@p~ v`rQ w`k;N@y~ mRl bWjy bvt pw~ vR@y~ @mm kOd` v#v| bv ap amwk @n` kL yRwO y. ek gAg`vk ek @pLt pQhQtQ @mm kOd` v#v| w`k;Ny cgOl r$p`k`r (k~Qj~`# o~bn WhQe#p- v#v| pq~{wQy nmQn~ h[En~vnR l#@b|. @mm kYm@y~ qW mRU gAg` pq~{wQy pRr` m kOd` jl`X nQr\m`Ny wOL v#dQ jly gbd` kr g#nWm phsR vn awr @p`~;k pY@q~Xvl @wwmny q nQrn~wr@yn~ a`rk;` vQNQ. vsr pRr` m pYXs~w jl s#pyRmk~ lb` qWmt em @q~XWy v`rQ w`k;Nyt h#kQy`v wQbR bv amwk @n` kL yRwO y.

@m`rghkn~q jl`Xyt yt vn gY`m nQl{`rW @k`tQT`s gNn e@k`lhkQ. kBr`v, a#lgmRv, wl@g`d, kdvw, gl~@p`~r#gl, m#qQpQhQl~l, @k`n~gh@vl, rj@vl m`rgmRv, @m`r@g`l~l, sh vQl~lghmRl~l w#n~n em gY`m nQl{`rW @k`tQT`s @v|. @mm @k`tQT`svlQn~ v#dQ pYm`Nyk qEr\lx gN@y~ o_;{ p#L$tQ qk~nt l#@b|. e~v` pQLQb[v @m`rghkn~q @y`~jQw v&`p^wQ@y~ p`rQsrQk blp$m| wk~@s~r# v`r\w`@v| (1998 ok~@w`~br\) s[hn~ vW a#ww~ e~v` sArk;Ny kQrWmt gw h#kQ s#lsRm| h` kYm@v|qyn~ s[hn~ @n` vWm brpwl qEr\vlw`vkQ. vQ@X~;@yn~ bQA @k`@h`B, @k`wl hQBRtR, iMQnQ sh irmRsR v#nQ o_;{ s[h` a#wQ il~lEm slk` b#lR vQt e~v`@y~ a`r\}Qk pY@y`~jn awQ mhw~ vn awr @m| sQylE o_;{ pY@q~X@y~ s~v`x`vQk vn`n~wrvlQn~ v`r\w` @v|. e~v` jl`Xyt yt vR vQt mRUmnQn~ m v[ vW y`m q$v#n~w prQsr vQn`XykQ. m`nv blp$mkQn~ o_;{ p#L#tQ v[ vW yn vQX`l m v&`p^wQy @my vWm blvw~ @€qjnk sQq~{QykQ. prQsr v`r\w`@v| qk~v` a#wQ a`k`ryt jl`Xyt yt vn v`nn~wrvl wQ@bn X`kvlQn~ sQyyt 28k~ o_;{ vX@yn~ gw h#kQ y. ap kL nQrWk;NvlQn~ @pnW yn~@n~ ey sQyyt 35-40 pmN agyk~ gw h#kQ bv y. It @h~wOv ktR p[Er# shQw pQrQhW gQy vn bQm| sh q~vQwWy ww~w~vyt pw~ kOd` vn`n~wrvl a#wQ o_;{ p#L$tQ g#n ehQ s[hn~ @n` vWm y. jl`Xy s[h` @h`[Qn~ vg` kL @hk~ty`r\ 1000k xOmQyk~ sh kOBRr# idm| @hk~ty`r 450k~ pmN yt @v|. @mv#nQ vQX`l k^;Qk`r\mQk xSmQ pY@q~Xyk~ jl@yn~ yt kr q$mWm sAvr\{n@y~ q^;~tQ@k`~N@yn~ s`{`rNWkrNy krn~@n~ @k@s~ q yn~n ux@w`~@k`~tQk g#tlEvkQ.

@m`rghkn~q jl`Xyt yt vn pY@q~X@y~ vQvQ{ vr\gvlt ayw~ KnQj sm|pw~ qk~nt l#@b|. wl@g`d gY`m nQl{`rW @k`tQT`s@y~ @pl~s~p`r\ nQ{Q qk~nt l#@b|. e@mn~ m wl@g`d, kBr`v, @k`~n~gh@vl sh @m`rghkn~q pY@q~Xvl myQk` @mn~ m k~v`tQs~ q bhRl v a#w. kBr`v pY@q~X@y~ a#wQ myQk` nQ{Qy pYm`N@yn~ vQX`l y. e@hw~ @mm pY@q~Xy jlyt yt vn nQs` uk~w KnQj nQ{QvlQn~ lb`gw h#kQ vQX`l a`r\}Qk v`sQyk~ ap rtt ahQmQ vnR a#w. @myt amwr v aBn~gh nQm|ny h` @m`rghkn~q jl`X @v|l~l sks~ vn xOmQ@y~ phw~ pY@q~Xvl m#NQk~ hmR vW wQ@b|. e~v` wvqErtw~ nQ{Q @ls nQm|ny @qps w#n~pw~ vW a#wQ bvt nQ{Qs`qQw lk;N anRv wWrNy kL h#kQ y. @mm m#NQk~ @k`rn~dm| h` g`ntQ pvRlt ayw~ @v|.

alQ mQnQs~ g#tRm ugY awt

@mm v&`p^wQy nQs` a#wQ vn pYblwm wvw~ p`rQsrQk g#tlEvk~ vn~@n~ alQ mQnQs~ g#tRmyQ. @y`~jQw @m`rghkn~q jl`Xy h` pl~@l~gm jl`Xy a`XYQw v sh kdQnm| mhv#lQ sAvr\{n v&`p`ry anRv pQhQtRvn lq vn uq&`n axyxSmQ sh rk;Qw kQhQpyk~ mhv#lQ gM sh aBn~ gM a`XYQw v qk~nt l#@b|.

enm| mhv#lQ k kl`py wOL pQhQtRvn lq m`qEr#oy j`wQk v@n`~q&`ny (@hk~t`y`r 58,850), vs~gmRv j`wQk v@n`~q&n`y (@hk~ty`r 36948), pQt`r w#n~n j`wQk vn uq&`ny (vs~gmRv j`wQk v@n`~q&`nyt Is`n qQX`@vn~ e@hw~ It anRbq~{Qw v vQl~lE shQw jl`X bhRlv qk~nt l#@bn v@n`~q&`nykQ), mQn~@n~rQy h` gQrQw@l~ j`wQk vn uq&`ny (@hk~t`yr 14222kQ), kvRdRl~l j`wQk v@n`~q&`ny (@hk~ty`r 6900kQ), aAgAm#dQl~l j`wQk v@n`~q&`ny (@hk~ty`r 7529), sWgQrQy axy xSmQy (@hk~ty`r 5099kQ), vQk~@t`~rQy` - rn~@qNQgl - rn~t#@B| axy xOmQy (@hk~ty`r 42087) vX@ynQ.

ihw s[hn~ vn uq&`n, axy xSmQ wOL vl~ alQn~ @g~ v`sxSmQ qk~nt l#@b|. uq`hrN vX@yn~ mhv#lQ k kl`pyt qkO@Nn~ a#wQ m`qEr#oy j`wQk v@n`~q&`ny wOL vl~ alQ v`sxSmQ a#wQ awr uwOrt sAkYmNy vW@m| lk;N @pn~nRm| kryQ. @myQn~ @pnW yn~@n~ m`qEr#oy j`wQk v@n`~q&`n@y~ mhv#lQ gM wrNy krn vl~ alQn~ vs~gmRv j`wQk v@n`~q&`ny uq&`nyt p#mQ@Nn bv y. ey vl~ alQ gmn~ krn p#rNQ sAkYmN m`r\gykQ. e@mn~ m qWr\G k`lyk~ wQs~@s~ pvw~v` @gn p#mQNQ sAkYmN rt`vkQ. @m`rghkn~q avt pY@q~Xy wNbQm|, kOd` jl`X h` vn`n~wr qk~nt l#@bn nQs` em pY@q~Xy vl~ alQ wm @g`qEr# bQm| @ls @y`q@gn wQ@b|. kl` v#vt phLQn~ pQhQtQ khl~l- pl~@l~k#@L~ vn`n~wr@y~ sQt p#mQ@Nn alQn~ q a#w#m| k`lvl qBRlE jl`Xy os~@s~ qkONt pQvQ@sn avs~}` q$kQy h#kQ y. vs~gmRv j`wQk vn uq&`nyt p#mQ@Nn vl~ alQ q$nt @m`rghkn~q jl`Xy iqQ vn xSmQyt p#mQN e#wn~ sQt mQn~@n~rQy-gQrQw@l~ s~v`x`vQk rk;Qw kl`pyt a#wOU @vwQ. jl`Xy iqQ vR vQt ehQ @v|l~lt phLQn~ vl~ alQn~ @g~ sAkYmN rt`v pQhQtyQ. enm| alQ mAkd pQhQtn~@n~ mhv#lQ w kl`py h` pl~@l~gm jl`X@yn~ avw#n~ vn ay pqQAcQ krn kl`py awr y. @m| nQs` @mm kl`py wOL an`gw@y~ qr#NR alQ mQnQs~ g#tRmk~ nQr\m`Ny vW@m| v#dQ idkdk~ pvwW. vr\wm`n@y~ vRv q kbrv, wl@g`d, @k`~n~gh@vl sh a#lh#r pY@q~Xvl alQ mQnQs~ g#tRm qk~nt l#@b|. 2006 qW @m| pY@q~Xvl vl~ alQ mQnQs~ g#tRm nQs` alQ 27k~ pmN mQy @g`s~ wQ@b|. ihw s[hn~ kL gY`m @s~v` vsm| jlyt yt vn nQs` @y`~jQw jl`Xyt n#@gnhQrQn~ a#wQ mhv#lQ T kl`pyt vl~ alQn~ @g~ gmn~ m`r\gy vQhQ@qn nQs` vl~ alQ mQnQs~ g#tRm v&`p~w vWm @n`v#L#k~vQy h#kQ vnR a#w. e@mn~ m mhv#lQ $ kl`pyt vl~ alQ a#wOU vW@m| h#kQy`vk~ q pvwW. eyt @h~wOv vn~@n~ $ kl`pyt bthQr @k`t@s~ pl~@l~gm jl`Xy iqQ vn nQs` y. em jl`X@y~ @p`~;k kl`py vl~ alQn~t sRqEsR @g`qEr# bQm| spy` @qn b#vQnQ. an`gw@y~ qW vQk~@t`~rQy`, rn~@qNQgl, rn~t#@B| axy xOmQy @vw vs~gmRv j`wQk vn uq&`n@y~ sQt alQn~ @g~ sAkYmN rt`vk~ sQqE @vw#yQ a@p~k;` @k@ryQ. @m| kl`p @qk awr qEr pYm`Ny kQ@l`~mQtr 35k~ pmN @v|. e~ nQs` ilEk~kOBRrt n#@gnhQrQn~ a#wQ pY@q~Xy avt vl~ alQ - mQnQs~ g#tRm| ihL y` h#kQ y. @p`@L`n~nr#v qQs~wYQk~kyt ayw~ mhv#lQ I kl`p@y~ a#l~@l~v#v @k`tQT`sy pQhQtQ b[En`gl iw` qr#NR v pvwQn vl~ alQ mQnQs~ g#tRm| g#n av{`ny @y`mR kL vQt apt @pnW yn~@n~ @m`rghkn~q h` pl~@l~gm jl`X a`XYQw sAvr\{n kl`p h` n#vw pqQAcQ kQrWmt nQymQw pY@q~XvlQn~ q an`gw@y~ qW qr#NR alQ- mQnQs~ g#tRm| a#wQvQy h#kQ bvkQ. @m`rghkn~q jl`Xyt yt vn idm| ahQmQ @g`vWn~t idm| lb` @qn~@n~ kvRdRl~l h` mWgs~v#v awr pQhQtQ pY@q~X@ynQ. mWgs~ v#v s^jRv m @s`~m`vwW j`wQk vn uq&`nyt m`yQm| @v|. @my wvw~ nv alQ mQnQs~ g#tRmk a`rm|xykQ.

blhw~k`r ivw~ kQrWm| vn`hQ mQnQs~ ayQwQv`sQkm| q^D @ls @klsWmk~

@m`rghkn~q jl`Xy iqQ kQrW@m| @y`~jn`v 1960 qk~v` iwQh`syt ur#mkm| kQyn~nkQ. @m`rghkn~q jl`Xy iqQ krn~@n~ y yn pRr\v nQgmny mw 1960 sQt vr\wm`ny qk~v` jlX@yn~ yt vn @mm pY@q~Xvl jnw`vt s~}Qr nQv`s s$qWm, s~}Qr vg`vn~ kQrWm, vQqElQy lb` qWm, m`r\g a`qW @p`qE phsRkm| lb` qWm q$dQ @ls sWm` @kr#NQ. e@hw~ jnw`v vr\wm`ny vn vQt @m| sQylE @q~vl~ s~v uw~s`h@yn~ @g`d ng`@gn wQ@b|. @m`rghkn~q n#m#wQ @q~Xp`ln @v|l~l e~ sQylE @qy jnw`vt ahQmQ krn ww~w~vyt aq vn vQt pw~ v wQ@b|. sAvr\{n@y~ n`m@yn~ krnR lbn @mv#nQ blhw~k`r ivw~ kQrWm| pQLQb[v vQy`n` pYk`Xn@y~ h` kQYy`k`rW v#dsth@n~ 10 vn @j~qy @k@rhQ bl{`rQn~ @g~ av{`ny @y`mR kL yRwO y. "sAvr\{n phsRkm|, pRr\N mQnQs~ ayQwQv`sQkm| xSk~wQ vQqWm h` sAvr\{n@y~ adRp`dR yn`qQy an~wr\j`wQkv pQLQgw~ mn`v ayQwQv`sQkm| kp~p`qE kQrWm pQNQs s`{`rNWkrNy kQrWm pQNQs a#yq sQtQn~nt @h~wO k`rN` @n` @v|" ynR@vnQ. mQnQsRn~ @g~ s~v k#m#w~@wn~ @w`rv un~hQtQ w#n~ ahQmQ krn @mv#nQ sAvr\{n v&`p^wWn~ anQv`r\&@yn~ m q$dQ sm`j, a`r\}Qk h p`rQsrQk pYX~n a#wQ kQrWmt @h~wO vn~@n~ y. s`m|pYq`yQk nQ;~p`qn kYm bQ[ v#@tn~@n~ y. wQrs`r vw~km| h` a`qym| mRlyn~ ahQmQ vn~@n~ y. @m@s~ ivw~ krn mQnQsRn~ n#vw pqQAcQ krvn nv prQsryn~hQ ovRn~ @g~ nQ;~p`qn h#kQy`vn~ @yqvWmt a#wQ avs~}`vn~ adR vQy h#kQ awr sm|w~ lb` g#nWm s[h` q$dQ wrgk`rQw~vyk~ nQr\m`Ny vWmt q pQLQvn. wv q nv prQsr@y~ qW p#v#wQ pYj` v&Rhyn~ sh sm`j j`lyn~ qEr\vl vQy h#kQ awr Z`wQ mQwY kN~d`ym| vQsWrW yn~@n~ y. @m| nQs` an~wr\j`wQk w`k;NQk sh`y pQyvr pQLQb[ @p`qE sm|mRwQ@y~ 1990 p#v#wQ hwr vn s#sQv`r@y~ aAk 2hQ 22 vn

@j~q@y~ q$k~@vn prQqQ, @p`qE sm|mRwQ@y~ aAk 7hQ h` aAk 4 vQsQn~ a`mn~wYNy @k@rn ayRrQn~ "r`j&yn~ vQsQn~ wm rtvl vsQyn~ un~hQtQw#n~vlQn~ blhw~k`r@yn~ ivw~ @n` kL yRwO y" ynR@vnQ. e@hw~ aq qv@s~ @m`rghkn~q v&`p^wQ@yn~ @k@rn~@n~ q @my m @n` @v| q?

@q~XgONy, X`k h` sw~w~v vQvQ{w~vy

@mm pY@q~X@y~ pvwQn~@n~ nQvr\wn @q~XgONykQ. (Tropical climate)- nQrQwqQg h` Is`nqQg @m`~sm| sRLA @q@kn~ m vr\;`v l#@b|. v`r\;Qk vr\;`pwny mQ.mQ. 1580k~ pmN vn awr em vr\;`pwn@yn~ sQyyt 70k~ pmN l#@bn~@n~ Is`nqQg @m`~sm| k`l@y~ qW y. a@p~Yl~ sQt a@g`~s~wO qk~v` vQyLQ k`lgONyk~ pvwQn awr @pbrv`rQ m`s@y~ i@d`~ry wrmk~ wQyRNR y. @pbrv`rQ m`s@y~ qQv` u;~Nw~vy @sn~tQ@gY~d| aAXk 35 qk~v` ihL yyQ. @m`rghkn~q h` kUgM jl`Xvl @p`~;k pY@q~Xy an~wr\ kl`pyt ayw~ vn nQs` v#dQ vr\;`pwnyk~ v`r\w` @v|. em kl`p@y~ s`m`n& v`r\;Qk vr\;`pwny mQ.mQ. 2000kQ. pY@q~X@y~ s`m`n& u;~Nw~vy @sn~tQ@gY~d| aAXk 27kQ.

X`k vQvQ{w~vy gw~ kl sq`hrQw sh pwnXWlW v^k;lw` mQXYNyk~ q$kQy h#kQ awr pY{`n X`k pYj`vn~ @qkk~ k#pW @p@n~. enm| plE-vWr-bRr#w pYj`v (manilkara-hemicyclea-Chloroxylon community)- h` v$vrN-hl~mQl~l-klEvr pYj`v (Alseodaphne-Berrya-Diospyrus Communitt))- vX@ynQ. plE-vWr-bRr#w pYj`vt ayw~ X`kvl s`m`n& us mQtr 30k~ pmN vn awr vtQn`kmQn~ ihL q$v vr\g @ls h[En~vnR l#@b|. @mm X`k pYj`v smM klEm#qQrQy (Diospyros quaesita)- sh qQvRl~ (Fenonica limonia)- v`r\w` vn awr klEm#qQrQy aq vn vQt vQX`l vX@yn~ wr\jnyt lk~ vR X`kykQ. v$vrN-hl~mQl~l-klEvr pYj`v gAg` nQm|n h` a#L @q`L smWp@y~ v`sxSm| pQhQtRv`@gn wQ@b|. @m| X`k pYj`v, em prQsry wOLQn~ h[En`gw~ pYmRKwm uw~kr\;y (Climax)- @s~ nm| kL h#kQ y. @mm X`kvl s`m`n& us mQtr 25k~ pmN vn awr klEvr X`ky v#dQ vX@yn~ qk~nt l#@bn~@n~ (Terminalia arjuna)- sh m`qn~ (Syzygium cumini)- yn X`k pYj`vn~ @g~ s`rvw~ vr\{nyk~ @pn~nRm| kryQ.

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sw~w~v vQvQ{w~vy

@mm pY@q~X@y~ sw~w~v vQvQ{w~vy q vQ@X~;@yn~ s#lkQl~lt gw yRwO y. XYW lAk`@v| @x_mQk h` s`grQk @@jv kl`p (Terrestrial and Marine Bio-regions of Sri Lanka)- sQwQymt anRv @m`rghkn~q v&`p^wQ pY@q~Xy ayw~ vn~@n~ @@jv kl`p aAk 02 @k`tst y. ey nm| kr a#w~@w~ vQyLQ kl`pWy sw~w~v e~kky vX@ynQ.

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@mm swOn~ awrQn~ qWr\Gwm sAkYmN rt`vk~ anRgmny krn~@n~ vl~ alQn~ y. vs~gmRv mQn~@n~rQy h` gQrQw@l~ j`wQk vn uq&`ny awr pY@q~X@y~ alQn~ @g~ mAkd pQhQt` wQ@b|. @m`rghkn~q avt pY@q~X@y~ vQyLQ m`svl vl~ alQn~ nQwr g#v@sn bv q$kQy h#kQ y. @myt amwr v @mm pY@q~X@yn~ kOr#lE vQ@X~; 77k~ v`r\w` vW wQ@bn awr a`@v|NQk h` an~wr`yt lk~ vR vQ@X~; @ls nm| kL h#kQ vlQ kOkOL`  sh hbn~ kOkOL`~- @mm pY@q~X@yn~ v`r\w` vWm vQ@X~;w~vykQ.

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